To see more information other than history, please visit Abbreviationfinder to learn more about climate, population, government, and economy for the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Yugoslav Communist League – in Yugoslavia – decided in 1990 to dissolve the ruling monopoly of power. The local and ethnic demands were put forward by political demagogues. At the November elections in Bosnia – the first with the participation of several parties after World War II – the electoral body voted extensively on «ethnic» candidates. From the nationalist parties, 86 Muslims (SDA), 72 Serbs (SDS) and 44 Croats (HDZ) were elected, while the former Communists of the Democratic Reform Party and the Liberal Technocrats lost ground.

The Muslim population group was represented by the Democratic Action Party and its leader, theologian Alija Izetbegovic, was elected the new president of the republic. The Croatian leaders and the Bosnian Muslims wanted, under the encouragement of Western Europe and for fear of the nationalism underway in Serbia, to copy the example from Slovenia and Croatia and detach from Yugoslavia. The Bosnian Serbs, on the other hand, preferred to remain in a Yugoslav federation.

In October 1991, the Bosnian Sabor adopted a Declaration of Independence, and in January 1992 it was decided to print a referendum on the withdrawal of the federation.

In an effort to preserve the republic and its integrity, President Izetbegovic assured that Bosnia and Herzegovina would not become an Islamic state and guaranteed the rights of all population groups. At the beginning of March, the conflict erupted into light, as independence was supported by 99.4% of Muslims and Croats in a referendum.

The EU and the US recognized respectively. the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina on April 6 and 7. The Bosnian Republic was admitted as a member of the OSCE, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and in May the country was admitted to the UN.

At the same time, the Serbian population proclaimed the establishment of an independent Serbian-Bosnian republic, in the areas under Serbian control: Krajina in Bosnia, with Banja Luka as its center. The fighting spread rapidly throughout the region.

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Local Croatian forces also controlled certain areas of the republic and had occasional clashes with government troops. At the end of July, Croatia and Bosnia signed an agreement recognizing each other as republics.

Serbian forces killed in January 1993 Bosnian Deputy Prime Minister Hakija Turaljic in Sarajevo. In March, the UN decreed a ceasefire in the Sarajevo area. At this time of the war, several reports testified about the presence of Serbian concentration camps and an ongoing “ethnic cleansing”. The latter consisted of the displacement of residents of the rival ethnic groups, especially of the numerically weak.

According to Amnesty International, thousands of civilian, wounded and captured soldiers were executed. The prisoners were subjected to torture and ill-treatment. According to UN estimates, around 40,000 women were subjected to rape. Although all the parties involved were abusive, the Serbs remained with the greatest responsibility, while the Muslims were the group exposed to the most serious crimes.

The UN peacekeeping force, UNPROFOR, posted around 20,000 “blue berets” while the United States refused to send troops to Bosnia, despite repeated demands from the UN and European states. Several security zones were established around the cities of Tuzla, Zepa, Gorazde, Bihac and Sarajevo, but neither they, nor the many ceasefire, were to a significant degree respected.

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina