Air connections Great Britain’s largest airline is British Airways, which offers long-haul flights in all directions. Virgin Airlines is the second largest airline that also offers numerous long-haul flights. Other airlines are BMI and Easy-Jet.
There are 471 airports of various sizes in the UK. The UK’s “flagship airport” is London Heathrow Airport, one of the busiest airports in the world. London Gatwick Airport and Manchester International Airport follow closely behind Heathrow Airport. Other airports of great importance for domestic and international flights are: London Stansted Airport (headquarters of the low-cost airline Ryanair), London Luton Airport (headquarters of Easy-Jet); and outside London: Birmingham International Airport, Cardiff International Airport, Glasgow International Airport and Belfast International Airport.
Before the opening of the Channel Tunnel and the start of air traffic, entry into England was only possible by water. UK’s main port cities are Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Plymouth, Portsmouth and Tyne. Passenger ferries operate internationally to nearby countries such as France, Ireland, Belgium and the Netherlands. Within Great Britain, for example, ferry lines connect Scotland with Northern Ireland and Southampton with the Isle of Wight.
The UK rail network is one of the oldest in the world and consists of two networks. That of Great Britain, connected to Europe through the Channel Tunnel opened in 1994, and the Northern Irish rail network, connected to Ireland. All in all, both networks cover 34,000 km, 40,000 bridges and 2,500 train stations. Similar to the UK bus network, UK rail transport is exclusively in the hands of private companies coordinated by the Network Rail organization. The largest railway companies are Virgin Trains, GNER, Connex and the First Group. Since November 2007 there is a new, extremely fast connection with the “Eurostar” from the new St. Pancras train station in London to the Gare du Nord in Paris. The train only needs 2 hours and a few minutes for the route, which of course leads through the Eurotunnel.
Britain’s bus network was largely privatized under the Transport Act of 1980. Northern Ireland is an exception, where the bus and train lines are still controlled by the state’s Translink. Coach buses, mainly on the National Express line, provide long distance connections within the UK. Scottish Citylink/ Megabus provide most of the coaches within Scotland. At the regional level there is a large number of bus providers that are also privately owned.
Great Britain has three subway networks. The best known and largest in England is the London’s Tube, Europe’s oldest underground network. There is also the Docklands Light Railway in London, which is connected to the underground network and connects central London with the Docklands financial district and the Greenwich Peninsula. Outside London there is the Glasgow Underground and the Tyne & Wear Metro.
Some time ago the “Oystercard” was introduced in London to pay for travel fares. The Oystercard is a chip card that can be loaded with monthly cards and cash to enable fast, cashless travel on public transport. The price difference to conventionally purchased travel tickets is so great that it is worthwhile to inquire about the Oystercard even for a short vacation.
S-Bahn trains exist in several other major cities (Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool.
connections were common and popular in Britain at the turn of the 19th century and the 20th century the 50s largely eliminated. in recent years, however, the tram has experienced a renaissance and today there is tram networks in Manchester, Sheffield, Midlands, Croyden and Nottingham.
rental cars can be easily booked with all major car rental companies, on site or from Germany out.
When it comes to taxis, a distinction must be made between the official black cabs and the minicabs. Minicabs are normal private cars. Black Cabs are quite a bit more expensive compared to the minicabs. There is a surcharge at night. Be careful with the minicabs: you should always set the price beforehand and order the taxi directly from the company by telephone. You should never intercept a minicab from the street, as there are many illegal minicab drivers who are traveling without a license.
The road network in Great Britain covered around 392,321 km in 2003, of which 3,476 km were motorways. Northern Ireland’s road network covers a total of 24,887 km. The maximum speed on the UK’s motorways is 113 km/h (70 miles per hour). Tolls, as often found in Europe, are uncommon in the UK, with the exception of some bridges in England (e.g. Severn). In 2002 the ‘Congestion Charge’ was introduced in London. The fee is charged to motorists driving in the ‘Congestion Zone’ in central London. The fee, which is currently £ 8, is charged to encourage motorists to use alternative means of transport to get to central London. At the same time, traffic jams and smog caused by exhaust gases are avoided and travel times within the city center are shorter.
To avoid trouble with the police or even the courts, drivers should strictly adhere to the traffic regulations in force in the country. Regardless of the information provided here, it is advisable to obtain more detailed information from ADAC, AvD or the British transport organization AAA.
The penalty fee for exceeding the maximum speed by 50 km/h is up to € 5,600.
- Urban: In built-up areas there is a speed limit of 30 miles/h = around 48 km/h
- Country roads: On country roads (marked with an A or B followed by a number) there is a speed limit of 60 miles/h = around 96 km / h. Multi-lane highways with a median are excluded. The speed limit here is the same as on motorways.
- Motorways: On motorways (Motorways: marked with an M followed by a number) there is a speed limit of 70 miles/h = around 112 km / h
In addition, it goes without saying that you must pay attention to the current local speed limits, which are indicated by traffic signs.
In Great Britain there is left-hand traffic. In addition, the extremely frequent roundabouts, which often appear on large multi-lane country roads, take a lot of getting used to for the visitor. It should be noted that all vehicles in the circle have right of way. Therefore, before entering the roundabout, pay particular attention to vehicles coming from the right. The M6 Motorway also offers a special feature, which splits into the free M6 and the toll M6 at Birmingham. The toll for a car is 2.5 pounds sterling = 0.375 € (as of August 2006).
Blood alcohol limit
In Great Britain there is a limit for the blood alcohol level of 0.8 per mille.
A very detailed description of the traffic rules in Great Britain and therefore also in England can be found at the following URL:
International license plate
The UK international license plate is: