Finland today belongs to the rich capitalist countries. This position is the result of strong industrial growth since the 1890’s. Society has changed very quickly. At the turn of the century, Finland was still a backward society dominated by agriculture, despite the fact that the country’s paper monopolies were already dominating the paper market throughout Russia. In 1900, the industry employed no more than 11% of the working population, while the corresponding figures for Norway were 26% and for Sweden 29%.
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Finland was inhabited as early as 7,500 BCE and the first residents were the Sami, later discriminatively called patches of other peoples. The Sami were originally hunters, fishermen and collectors, but eventually they developed a livestock and subsistence farming – isolated from developments in the rest of Europe. Far later, in the first century, Finno-Ugrims eventually penetrated the southern part of the country, pushing the Sami people further and further north until they controlled most of the country. The Sami culture is still found in the Finnish place names, which are largely Sami origin. By the year 1000, the Finns had created countless settlements in the southern part of the country.
- Countryaah: Check to see the location of Finland on the world map. Also covers major mountains, rivers and lakes in Finland.
1172 Swedish colony
In the southwest, the ancestors of tavastlanders – the people of Hameen Laani – crossed the Gulf of Finland into the country and in the south-east came the carols. Scandinavian people settled on the west coast, the islands and also Ahvenanmaa. From the 12th century the Swedes and Russians fought for control of the country. In the year 1172, the pope recommended the Swedes to maintain control over Finland to prevent the Finns from converting to Orthodox Russian Christianity. The Reformation in Europe meant that in the 16th century Sweden declared Protestantism to official religion – also in Finland, which was divided into a number of counties and an integral part of the Swedish Empire.
The development after 1899 had several important consequences for the labor movement. Because of the social conditions, it was difficult to organize directly, and the poor results achieved in this way led to the central importance of the state for all working groups. Not only did this give the labor movement a strong “state” feel in the sense that the party was clearly dominant in relation to the various activities of the trade union movement. But all working groups also perceived the state as the instrument that sustained social oppression. Likewise, they experienced concrete contradictions in the ideologies and institutions that justified the existing social system. This greatly contributed to developing the unity of the labor movement in a situation where different groups of workers lived in very different conditions,The Second International’s “Kautskyist” Marxism entailed. Yet, in 1917, this ideology proved to be on a flimsy basis.
Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland’s capital; 560,900 (2006) of which (2005) 34,900 Swedish speakers. Helsinki is the center of Swedish language and culture in Finland, but the share of Swedish speakers in the city’s population is declining, not least due to a large immigration to the main regional city from Central and Northern Finland. Greater Helsinki covers 822 km2 with 988,350 inclusive and consists of four municipalities: Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa. The city center houses the national governing bodies (the Reichstag, the central administration, the Supreme Court and the National Bank), embassies, many of the country’s most important museums, concert halls and theaters as well as most of the Finnish business world headquarters besides business districts and industrial companies. In the Greater Helsinki commuter area with approximately 600,000 jobs live almost1/4 of the Finnish population.
Every day, tens of thousands commute to central Helsinki. The traffic stream utilizes a modern network of freeways, ring roads and roads as well as city and metro stations. The metro line of the city, which was opened after two decades of rope hauling on September 3, 1962 following the imagery in Moscow and Stockholm, was extended east in 1998 to Vuosaari (sv. Nordsjö), while an expansion to the west is under planning. The metro, which has 17 stations over a distance of 21 km and has 200,000 travelers daily or 56 million annually. passengers. Also, a fast ring road connection to the airport is under construction and is expected to be completed in 2015. Furthermore, a network of bus and tram lines provides efficient transport between the boroughs and the many new satellite towns. It is supported by the central underground near and far bus terminal Kamppi (so called the battle), which was inaugurated in 2005; it is Europe’s largest with more than 50 stops.
Part of Helsinki’s industry has been relocated to the other three capital municipalities, Espoo (Espoo), Kauniainen (Sv. Grankulla) and Vantaa (Svanda Vanda), and traffic pressure towards the city center has subsided somewhat. But Helsinki is still the country’s most important industrial city (ships, machinery, textiles, crockery, food and beverages), and about 30% of the country’s imports and approximately 12% of exports are served by the port, which icebreakers keep open for larger ships during the winter months. There are ferry connections to Gdynia, Mariehamn, Rostock, Skt. Petersburg, Stockholm, Tallinn and Travemünde. In addition, the city together with Visby as the only port cities in the Baltic Sea has facilities for full capacity and handling of the wastewater from the many pending cruise ships. In 2008, a new major port, Vuosaaren satama (sv. North Sea port), was inaugurated for freight traffic. The well-developed railway and highway network (in southern Finland as motorways) connects the city with all parts of the country and with Sweden and Russia. From the airport of Vantaa, 20 km from the city center, there are frequent connections to the whole country and a large number of foreign destinations.
Helsinki (Helsinki) was founded in June 12, 1550 at the expiration of the dav. Helsingeån (now Vanda Å) in the Gulf of Finland at the village of Forsby. It was intended as a trading port against Russia, but competition from the Tallinn merchants was strong, and for more than 250 years the city was quite insignificant.
After Russia’s conquest of Finland, the city, which had just 4,000 houses, became a church, a tavern, a smaller hospital and a place of execution, in 1812 the capital of the Finnish great principality, and urban growth accelerated. The new capital was characterized by wooden houses, and to give the city a suitable appearance for a capital, a number of monumental stone buildings were erected around the Senate Square and on the north side of the nearby Market Square. To this end, the first major functions of Helsinki, church, town hall, berths and grocery stores, had been relocated in the 1600’s, because the uplift had gradually led to the erosion of large water areas around the mouth of Vanda Ås, and the increasingly larger types of ships made it necessary to move out. for deeper water. Wars and more fires, the last one in 1808, meant,
The new urban plan emerged as a system of different right street types with wide tree-planted esplanades and boulevards and narrow street courses for the local squares of the district. Housing construction for the rapidly growing population brought about a lot of redevelopment in the old housing stock of low-rise wooden houses, but the central parts of Helsinki were not completely sanitized in the last quarter of the 19th century. Here, five and six-storey apartment blocks were built, which still partly exist. Career construction continued after independence in 1917 and penetrated the wooden houses further and further north along the railways. This process placed the working class on the periphery of the city, while the officials moved into the newly erected stone house neighborhoods.
With the large urban growth, Helsinki has gradually occupied the entire hilly rock peninsula, larger areas to the north and by bridge connections the nearest islands. With the Lauttasaari and Kulosaari bridge districts (incorporated in 1946), which connect the peninsula with the mainland towards respectively. west and east, the city was given the long coastline that characterizes Helsinki. 30% of the urban area is free land with parks, lakes, forest and colony gardens. The Olympic Stadium (1940) and the Finlandia House (1971) are located in a large green area down to the Tölö bay, now supplemented by an opera and art exhibition buildings.
Helsinki has a large number of theaters and a rich musical life including. Sibelius Academy and the returning Helsinki Biennial for modern music. In addition, universities, research institutes and other institutions of higher education.
The strong economic recovery in the late 1950’s, the rise of motorism and, not least, the expansion of the city’s area through the incorporation of a number of surrounding municipalities caused some changes in the city’s structure. More than 100 newer houses had to be demolished to make room for the cars, and at the same time as the urban land was increased, a large number of houses were demolished to resurrect as higher and more squeezed blocks. A prominent feature of the process was a very varied offering of owner-occupied and rental housing. This created a mixed social structure in the residential areas. However, the new dense residential complexes have not been able to offset the thinning of properties caused by the expanded street network and the massive construction of large, modern office and commercial properties, so that the population of the central districts has dropped from 250.