According to estatelearning, Iran is located in the Middle East, bordered by Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. It is the 18th-largest country in the world with an area of 1.648 million square kilometers. Its capital city is Tehran and it is home to over 80 million people. Iran has a varied terrain featuring deserts, mountains and coastal plains as well as several major rivers such as Karun, Sefid-Rud and Zayandeh-Rud which provide irrigation for its agricultural activities. Iran has a predominantly dry climate with hot summers and cold winters. From its ancient ruins to its vibrant art scene, Iran offers tourists a unique cultural experience that cannot be found anywhere else in the world.
In 1981, the Islamic Revolutionary Party joined 90% of the population to completely dominate the state apparatus. In an attack on the party’s headquarters on August 30, 81, 72 of its leaders, including President Rajai and Prime Minister Mohamed Bahonar, died. Ali Khamenei who had been secretary-general of the party until then was now elected president. To see more information other than history, please visit Abbreviationfinder to learn more about climate, population, government, and economy for the country of Iran.
The Iranian priesthood instituted a theocratic regime in Iran and began a period of repression against the old and new opposition. Thousands were summarily executed, tens of thousands jailed as political prisoners and even more sent into exile. The democratic opening, confidence and enthusiasm that characterized the country after the revolution in 79 was crushed. An important instrument in the suppression of the left and the other opposition became the Islamic Revolutionary Guard.
Despite the war with neighboring Iraq, trade grew, but Iran’s economy became increasingly dependent on oil. The main trading partners were West Germany, followed by Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, Italy and the Arab Emirates.
On June 3, 1989, Ayatolah Khomeini died and 8 million Iranians attended his funeral. But despite Western predictions, the death of the patriarch did not lead to instability in the Iranian regime. The government made elections, and the outgoing president, Ali Sayed Khamenei, was appointed by the People’s Assembly as the faghih – spiritual leader of the nation.
- Countryaah: Check to see the location of Iran on the world map. Also covers major mountains, rivers and lakes in Iran.
1988 The Death of Salman Rushdie
At the August elections, parliamentary president Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsandjani won a crushing victory and became the country’s president. This office had previously had a cerimonial status, but with the new constitution was given more extensive powers of power. Iran’s international reputation suffered a severe setback when Khomeini in 1988 convicted Indo-British author Salman Rushdie of publishing the book “The Satanic Verses”. The fatwa Khomeini had issued against Rushdie made it the duty of every Muslim to kill the heretic. Rushdie was therefore forced to go underground.
In 1990, Iran condemned Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and took advantage of the international situation to negotiate a favorable solution to the border dispute with neighboring countries. Iraq returned the 2,600 km 2 the country had left with when the war ended in 88 against an exchange of prisoners of war, and the two countries shared supremacy over the Shatt-al Arab Strait. Iran, in turn, declared itself neutral in the ensuing war launched by a US-led alliance in January 91 against Iraq – the Gulf War.
Rafsanjani was re-elected president, which was a strengthening of the wing of the clergy that was considered most pro-Western. According to the constitution, the power in Iran was divided between the religious and state authorities. Ali Khamenei, just like Khomeini, was named the supreme leader, but he did not get the title of Greater Ayatolah. This one came to the aging Ayatolah Araki.
The most hostile sectors facing the West retained their privileges, but without being able to gather two-thirds of the votes in the Majlis – the parliament needed to change the president’s decrees. At the same time, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard was incorporated into the military, depriving these sectors of significant pressure.
Iran’s neutrality during the Gulf War was intended to provide the country with advantages over Baghdad, while at the same time making Iran stout in the diplomatic world. After diplomatic relations had been resumed with Britain in 1990, they were also resumed with Saudi Arabia in March 91 – while the war continued to rage. However, the approach to the West and the refusal to support Iraq against the US offensive worsened relations with other Muslim groups in the region. At the end of the war, Iran at the same time refused to support the Shiite insurgency in southern Iraq, causing great disillusionment among the groups that had seen a center of Shiite expansion in Tehran.
Murder-designated wrestler executed
Wrestler Navid Afkari is believed to be carrying out international appeals from, among others, the International Olympic Committee (IOC). He was arrested in connection with regime-critical demonstrations in the summer of 2018 and was accused of stabbing a public servant to death. According to authorities, he had confessed to the murder, but the confession was, according to his defender, forced through torture. The protests in the city of Shiraz, where Navid Afkari was also executed, targeted economic and social ills.
The second round of parliamentary elections
The second round of parliamentary elections, postponed as a result of the corona crisis, is being held (see 23 February, 15 March and 27 May). Ten remaining seats are to be filled. In Tehran and two other cities, elections will take place in 2021, at the same time as presidential and local elections, a government spokesman said.
New school year with distance school
After a break of almost six months due to the corona pandemic, almost 15 million students return to school. The intention is that there will be distance learning for most people during the new school year. In schools, it is physical distance, face masks and shortened lessons that apply. According to official data, the pandemic has claimed more than 22,000 lives in total in Iran, but it is claimed from various quarters that the actual death toll is significantly higher (see 3 August).