According to estatelearning, Serbia is located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. It is a medium-sized nation with a total area of 88,361 square kilometers and an estimated population of 8 million people. The capital city is Belgrade which lies in the north-central part of the country. The terrain consists mostly of low rolling hills with some rugged mountains in the southern region. The climate here is continental with temperatures ranging from -2 to 28 degrees Celsius throughout most of the year.
Today, Serbia was conquered about 580-620 by slaves, who in turn were subjugated by a likely Iranian people, the Serbs. These had been assimilated with the slaves in the 7th century, who assumed the popular name. The Serbs were ruled by princes, župans, who introduced Orthodox Christianity in the 800s and 900s. Often the župans were forced to acknowledge Byzantine supremacy. In the 11th century, Duklja (later called Zeta, now Montenegro) was the most important Serbian empire, but in the 12th century the position was taken over by Raška. In the 13th century, this was a kingdom, which became a regional great power with its own archbishop (1219) and mining. Under Stefan Dušan (1331–55), who was crowned tsar in 1346, large areas were conquered in Greece. After 1371, however, Serbia was divided into the Principality, which was subjugated by the Turks. In Serbian tradition this was done mainly through the Battle of Kosovo Polje 1389, but it was not until 1459 that Serbia was finally conquered.
- Countryaah: Check to see the location of Serbia on the world map. Also covers major mountains, rivers and lakes in Serbia.
During the Ottoman rule, an extensive emigration to areas north and northwest of Serbia, including Vojvodina and eastern Slavonia, took place. To see more information other than history, please visit Abbreviationfinder to learn more about climate, population, government, and economy for the country of Serbia. Instead, many Albanians moved into old Serbian areas in Kosovo. The Patć Patriarchate, founded in 1219, was restored in 1557, but after Serbian adversities in a war against the Turks, the patriarch and many thousands of Serbs fled to the Habsburg area in 1690 and established a new patriarchate in Sremski Karlovci in 1691. The emigration to the north led to Novi Sad and southern Hungary becoming the center of Serbian culture.
The Serbs rebelled during Karađorđe in 1804 and 1815-17 under its rival Miloš Obrenović, which caused the Turks to recognize a smaller area as an autonomous Serbia. Since Karađorđe was assassinated in 1817, Serbia’s political history was marked by the feud between the Obrenović and Karađorđević families. Miloš hired Serbs from Hungary to organize the administration, justice system and teaching with the Habsburg monarchy as the role model. After the Obrenović family, after constitutional disputes, were forced into exile (1842–59), the governing council carried out further modernization. Serbia remained neutral during the revolution year of 1848 and during the Crimean War (1853–56) but sought to exploit a political crisis in Bosnia in 1876 to reach the Adriatic Sea. After Serbia was defeated by the Ottoman Empire, in 1878, the Berlin Congress gained an area on the western border of Bulgaria.
Despite an opposition to Bosnia, Austria-Hungary supported Serbia financially and politically, which is why Serbia, which in 1882 was declared a kingdom, also accepted Austria’s annexation of Bosnia. With French help, Serbia, meanwhile, built up a strong defense force. In the Balkan War(1912–13) Serbia conquered parts of Novi Pazar and Kosovo as well as most of Macedonia. After the First World War until 1991, Serbia joined a united Yugoslavia, initially as a dominant part of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1929 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) during the Serbian Monarchy, and after the Second World War as the largest of six sub-republics in the established by Tito Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Serbia was first included in the formation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003) and then in the looser Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–06) to regain independence on June 5, 2006, after Montenegro chose to leave the Union.. Serbia took over the Union’s place in international organizations such as the UN. See alsoYugoslavia (state formation 1918–91), Yugoslavia (History) and the Yugoslav wars.
Serbia, which during Slobodan Milosević’s time in power was more or less isolated by the outside world, has, after its fall 2000, strived to become an accepted part of Europe again. An important part of this has been cooperation with the War Criminal Tribunal in The Hague. Milošević was extradited and brought to trial in The Hague, charged with, among other things, crimes against humanity but died in 2006 before any verdict was dropped. Among the many who have been brought to trial in The Hague after Milošević include Bosnian Serb former leader Radovan Karadžić, who was arrested in 2008, Bosnian Serb former commander Ratko Mladić and Croatian Serb former political leader Goran Hadžić, who were arrested in 2011; all three had stayed hidden in Serbia.
The cooperation with the Hague Court facilitated independent Serbia in its quest to gain membership in the EU, which required the wanted war criminals to be arrested and brought to the Hague for trial. This demand had long slowed down a Serbian application for membership in the EU, but in December 2009 Serbia was able to submit one, after promising to do everything to arrest Mladić and Hadžić as well, while taking a firm stand on the widespread crime that followed the war. track. Following the arrest of Mladić and Hadžić, the EU Commission recommended in October 2011 that Serbia be granted candidate status, but only in March 2012 did EU leaders decide to grant Serbia such status, however, without deciding when membership negotiations could begin. The EU demanded that Serbia first come to an effective cooperation with Kosovo, which caused support for EU membership to sharply decline among Serbs. However, the EU has not demanded any Serbian recognition of Kosovo.
Kosovo is formally part of Serbia in accordance with UN Resolution 1244, but was ruled in practice after the end of the Kosovo War in 1999 as a UN protectorate. In February 2008, the province unilaterally declared its independence, against the will of Serbia (and the Kosovo Serbs) and after unsuccessful negotiations under the auspices of the UN. Since then, unrest has occurred, especially in the border area dominated by Kosovo Serbs in the north, around the city of Kosovska Mitrovica.
In July 2010, the International Court of Justice in The Hague, to which the UN submitted the matter at the request of Serbia, declared that Kosovo’s declaration of independence did not violate international law. However, the Court did not rule on independence as such. Since 2010, regular consultations between Serbia and Kosovo have taken place during the EU mediation, not least to solve practical everyday issues for the people. These talks also continued since the new, more nationalist Serbian government took office in the summer of 2012 (see State and Politics) and in April 2013, the countries were able to sign an agreement that gave Kosovo sovereignty over the hitherto contradictory Serb-dominated northern Kosovo against giving it far-reaching autonomy. At the same time, Serbia has declared that Kosovo will never be recognized; The Serbian constitution also states that Kosovo is an insoluble part of Serbia. By 2017, Kosovo had been recognized by more than 100 countries, including the United States and most EU members including Sweden, but not by important states such as the Russian Federation and China.
Russia has always supported Serbia in its view of Kosovo’s status and relations between Serbia and its Slavic and Orthodox Christian “big brother” are excellent at all. For example, although relations with the EU have become increasingly important, Serbia chose to refrain from imposing sanctions on the Russian Federation when it annexed Crimea in the spring of 2014. Today, Serbia’s relations with neighboring countries are also generally good, although temporarily severed in relations with Montenegro and the present Northern Macedonia since these recognized Kosovo’s independence.
NATO cooperates with NATO shortly after independence under the Partnership for Peace (PFP), but no full membership there is relevant – NATO’s 1999 bombing of Serbia in the context of the Kosovo conflict poses another obstacle.