Archaeological finds show that people have been living in Zambia for more than 100,000 years, and there are traces of hunter and sank people in a Stone Age culture from over 15,000 years ago. In the first centuries of our era, Bantu- speaking people immigrated from the north; these brought with them resident agriculture and animal husbandry, the use of metals and new techniques in house building and pottery. From approx. The 500’s is the production of copper known.
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Among the first immigrant peoples were tonga (batonga) and nkoya, the latter from the great Luba – Lunda kingdoms in the northwest (today’s Angola and DR Congo), where one of them – Kazembe – was founded north in today’s Zambia. There were few strong state formation, but in addition to Kazembe existed from the 15th century Bemba and Lozi. These kingdoms were founded and developed especially through trade, including in ivory and slaves. A recent migration of great importance was the Ngoni immigration, originally from South Africa, from the 1830s.
With its location far from the coast, Zambia has long been less exposed to European and Arab influence and exploitation than other African countries. Contact with Europe was initiated with Portuguese trading interests which established themselves on the coast of East Africa and which from Mozambique penetrated and established trading stations, including in the Zambezi Valley. From the middle of the 18th century they bought especially ivory and copper, then slaves. In the 19th century, slaves were exported east through Mozambique and west through Angola. Ngoni immigration and the growing trade contributed to increased destabilization and rivalry in Zambia throughout the 19th century. To see more information other than history, please visit Abbreviationfinder to learn more about climate, population, government, and economy for the country of Zambia.
European explorers, including David Livingstone, mapped parts of Zambia from the 1850s and started trading and mission. British interests expanded from South Africa in the 1880s, when John Cecil Rhodes and his British South Africa Company (BSAC) secured rights to mineral extraction from local chieftains, thereby controlling Zambia. In 1888 Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia) and Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) were declared British spheres of interest, however, the original colonization took place through private companies. The land was first divided into an eastern and western part, and in Northeast Rhodesia, the North Charterland Exploration Company (NCEC) was granted a licensewhich led the company to rule this part of the country until the whole of Northern Rhodesia became subject to British colonial authority as a protectorate in 1924. Meanwhile, European forces had attacked and fought the Ngonies in the East 1898, which helped to strengthen the foothold in the country. The colonization of North-West Rhodesia, including the Barots country, on the other hand, was peaceful. Barotseland asked for British protection in 1890 and remained its own protectorate even after it was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia in 1911. The northwestern and northeastern parts were ruled separately and differently, but by BSAC merged into Northern Rhodesia in 1911, with Livingstone as capital.
BSAC used Northern Rhodesia substantially as a labor reserve for the mines in Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, as well as for mining in the copper belt, less to promote agriculture, even though the British authorities set aside land for white settlers – for example by forcibly relocating approx. 60 000 Africans. To finance the administration of the territory, and to force Africans to take paid work as miners, BSAC introduced taxes. This led to violent resistance. The development of the mining sector created a trade union movement which later helped to develop a political nationalist movement that contributed to the country’s independence in 1964.
During World War I, Northern Rhodesia contributed about 3,500 soldiers and 50,000 carriers to the fight against the German forces in East Africa. The war’s burdens with increased taxes led to riots in the northeast and opposition to BSAC among white residents. When Britain introduced direct rule over Northern Rhodesia in 1924, a legislative assembly was established, but Africans were not allowed to participate until 1948. Northern Rhodesia became economically closely linked to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. For the country’s white minority, the best guarantee of continued white rule lay in a merger with Southern Rhodesia; it happened in 1953. The Central African Federation was established as a self-governing British possession consisting of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland.(Malawi). The federation’s government and parliament were in Salisbury, leading to a transfer of resources from Northern to Southern Rhodesia. With the economic downturn in the north in the 1950s, the subsidization of southern Rhodesia also led many whites in northern Rhodesia to join the demand for independence.
The emerging nationalist movement opposed closer ties to Southern Rhodesia, and in 1948 the Northern Rhodesia Congress (NRC) was formed, and under the leadership of Harry Nkumbula, the NRC defeated the federation, without winning. The NRC was renamed the Northern Rhodesia African National Congress (ANC), and a younger, more radical Guardian nationalist led by Kenneth Kaunda broke out of the party in 1958 and formed his own, Zambia African National Congress (ZANC), which was banned the following year. Kaunda was arrested, but formed the United National Independence Party(UNIP) when he was released in 1959. The nationalists worked for the dissolution of the federation and for Northern Rhodesia to become an independent state. The federation was dissolved in 1963, prior to the independence of Zambia and Malawi. In 1962 elections were held, with a majority for an alliance of UNIP and ANC.